1.Jute Plant Cultivation & Harvesting:
Jute Fiber is a one of the most affordable natural Fiber and is second position to cotton in amount of produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. Jute is a 100% bio degradable crop grows mainly in Ganga delta. Major parts of West Bengal and Bangladesh are involved in Jute cultivation. Countries like China, Thailand, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan also cultivate Jute in minor scale.
Jute is extracted from the bark of the white jute plant (Corchorus capsularis) and to a lesser extent from tossa jute (C. olitorius). It is a natural fiber with golden and silky shine and hence called the Golden Fiber. Jute is an annual crop taking about 120 days (April/May-July/August) to grow.
It thrives in tropical lowland areas with humidity of 60% to 90%. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly.Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. Yields are about 2 tonnes of dry jute fiber per hectare.
The harvested plants are left in field for 3 days for the leaves to shed. The stems are then made up into bundles for steeping in water. Steeping is carried out immediately after harvest.
2. Retting :
A small stalk is harvested for pre-retting. Usually, this small stalk is brought before 2 weeks of harvesting time. If the fiber can easily be removed from the Jute core, then the crop is ready for harvesting.
After harvesting, the jute stalks are tied into bundles and submerged in running water. The stalk stays submerged in water for around 20 days. However, the retting process may require less time if the quality of the jute is better. In most cases, the fiber extraction process of fibers in water retting is done by the farmers standing under water.
3. Jute Fibre Extraction:
Jute Fiber Extraction (Stripping) is the process of removing the fibres from the stalk after the completion of retting. Fibres are removed from the stalk by any one of the following methods:
(i) Single plants are taken and their fibers are taken off.
(ii) Taken off a handful of stalks, breaking it in a to and fro motion in water.
(iii) Washing the stalks first by standing in waist deep water and then stripping afterwards.
4. Jute Fiber Rinsing & Drying:
Extracted fibers are washed in clean water. The dark color of fibers can be removed by dipping them in tamarind water for 15 to 20 minutes and again washed in clean water. After squeezing excess water the fibers are hang on bamboo railing for sun drying for 2-3 days.
5. Jute Fiber to Jute Mills:
Dried Jute fiber taken to the jute mills to make the ransom jute fiber into a straight long jute yarns. The rolled Fiber yarn is then sent to weaving facility where the yarns are made into jute fabric rolls later on Lamination facility laminates the jute material makes waterproof.